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The second city of Ghana is located in the Ashanti region with strong tribal identities and social structures.

Peri-urban areas are growing mainly by middle class encroachment, under a dual ‘customary’ legal system, displacing the land and livelihoods of many indigenes.

In this tropical rainforest location, climate-environment risks include flooding, water scarcity, extreme heat and wildfire.


Population city-region - 3.2m

Land area city-region - 254 km2

Density city-region - 12600 pp/km2

Population city-region change

Kumasi region

(World Bank data - – data for Ashanti province)

Extreme heat                                        - medium
Wildfire                                                  - HIGH
Water scarcity                                      - medium
River flood                                            - HIGH
Urban flood                                          - HIGH
Coastal flood                                        - (no data)
Cyclone                                                  - (no data)
Tsunami                                                 - (no data)
Landslide                                               - low
Earthquake                                           - medium
Volcano                                                 - (no data)


Economic type                                     - lower middle-income
GDP /pp city-region                            - $2266 USD / $7360 PPP
HDI (national 2017)                            - 0.592

(national level data)
Welfare regime (BTI)                           - 5.0
Control of corruption (SPI)                - 4.5
Access to justice (WGI)                       - 9.1


Reports and Policies

The Study on the Comprehensive Urban Development Plan for Greater Kumasi in the Republic of Ghana, Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology And Innovation, Town and Country Planning Department

Description: comprehensive report including environmental issues

Academic Articles

Cobbinah, Patrick Brandful, Asibey, Michael Osei, Opoku-Gyamfi, Marcia, & Peprah, Charles. (2019). Urban planning and climate change in Ghana. Journal of Urban Management, 8(2), 261-271.

Description: qualitative case study of Kumasi’s climate policies

Campion, Benjamin Betey, & Venzke, Jörg-Friedhelm. (2012). Rainfall variability, floods and adaptations of the urban poor to flooding in Kumasi, Ghana. Natural Hazards , 65(3), 1895-1911.

Description: flood adaptation measures in informal settlements

Darkwah, Rhoda Mensah, Cobbinah, Patrick Brandful, & Anokye, Prince Aboagye. (2018). Contextualising urban resilience in Ghana: Local perspectives and experiences. Geoforum, 94, 12-23.

Description: qualitative case study of resilience for climate adaptation in Kumasi

Owusu-Ansah, J. K. (2015). The influences of land use and sanitation infrastructure on flooding in Kumasi, Ghana. GeoJournal, 81(4), 555-570.

Description: qualitative case study with recommendations for flood management

Korah, Prosper Issahaku, & Cobbinah, Patrick Brandful. (2017). Juggling through Ghanaian urbanisation: Flood hazard mapping of Kumasi. GeoJournal, 82(6), 1195-1212.

Description: multi-criteria and spatial analysis of flood hazard zones

Amoateng, P., Finlayson, C. M., Howard, J., & Wilson, B. (2018). A multi‐faceted analysis of annual flood incidences in Kumasi, Ghana. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 27, 105– 117.

Description: qualitative case study of flooding with future recommendations

Cobbinah, Patrick Brandful, Gaisie, Eric, Oppong-Yeboah, Nana Yaw, & Anim, Desmond Ofosu. (2020). Kumasi: Towards a sustainable and resilient cityscape. Cities, 97, 102567.

Description: development, resilience and sustainability

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