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Surabaya is a port city on the Indonesian island of Java. A vibrant, sprawling metropolis, it mixes modern skyscrapers with canals and buildings from its Dutch colonial past. It has a rapidly growing
economy and metropolitan area with large hinterland and scenic landscape.

Peri-urban areas are mainly in larger private developments of middle class and worker housing,
mingling with traditional rice paddy cultivation.

Climate-environmental hazards are those of a tropical coastal city, with heat and flood amplified by
wildfire problems, with earthquake and volcanic risks in the background.


Population city-region (metropolitan)            -13.1m
Land area city-region                                          - 5925 km2
Density city-region                                              - 2200 pp/km2
Population city-region change                          -


Surabaya region

(World Bank data - -)

Extreme heat                                        - medium
Wildfire                                                  - HIGH
Water scarcity                                      - medium
River flood                                            -  medium
Urban flood                                          - medium
Coastal flood                                        - HIGH
Cyclone                                                  - (no data)
Tsunami                                                 - medium
Landslide                                               - low
Earthquake                                           - medium
Volcano                                                 - HIGH


Economic type                                     - emerging lower-middle income
GDP /pp city-region                            - $13655 / $47200 PPP
HDI         (regional 2017)                    - 0.81


(national level data)

Welfare regime (BTI)                           - 5.5
Control of corruption (SPI)                - 4.1
Access to justice (WGI)                       - 6.9


Organisations, Programmes, and Projects

Research Centers, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology

Description: research on climate adaptation, sustainability, infrastructure and disasters

Surabaya City Development Planning Agency

Description: access to policy documents

Reports and Policies

When non-climate urban policies contribute to building urban resilience to climate change: lessons learned from Indonesian cities, Asian Cities Climate Resilience

Description: report with several case studies in Surabaya

Policy Review: Opportunities for Enhancing Coastal Community Resilience and Climate Change Adaptation in Indonesia, USAID

Description: report contains case study of Surabaya’s coastal vulnerability

Academic Articles

Pamungkas, A., Ciptaningrum, M. U., Jaelani, L. M., and Iranata, D. 2019. Surabaya Resilience Index for Potential Earthquakes: An Institutional Perspective. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 23(1)

Description: application of CDRI to earthquake preparedness

Sayidah Sulma, Eko Kusratmoko, & Ratna Saraswati. (2013). Coastal Physical Vulnerability of Surabaya and Its Surrounding Area to Sea Level Rise. Makara Journal of Technology, 16(2), 163-170.

Description: a vulnerability index and multi-criteria analysis of the Surabaya region

Some, Wawan, Hafidz, Wardah, & Sauter, Gabriela. (2009). Renovation not relocation: The work of Paguyuban Warga Strenkali (PWS) in Indonesia. Environment & Urbanization, 21(2), 463-475.

Description: relationship between a social movement and government regarding riverside settlements and climate relocation

Kurniati, Ayu Candra, & Nitivattananon, Vilas. (2016). Factors influencing urban heat island in Surabaya, Indonesia. Sustainable Cities and Society, 27, 99-105.

Description: mixed method approach to urban heat islands and recommendations

Hawken, Scott, & Sunindijo, Riza Yosia. (2018). City of Kampung: Risk and resilience in the urban communities of Surabaya, Indonesia. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 36(5), 543-568.

Description: risks and resilience of informal settlements

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