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Historic primate city, major port and economic powerhouse of Thailand.   Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate
infrastructure. An inadequate road network with substantial private car usage,
have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion and severe air pollution.

Peri-urban development is led by corporate real estate with many forms of suburban and
ex-urban development, displacing water-intensive cultivation.

Climate-environment prospects on a tropical savannah coastal location: high risk of extreme heat
and wildfire, coastal flooding and cyclone with other forms of flooding also



Population (metropolitan area)        - 14.6m
Land area (metropolitan area)          - 7761 km2
Density (metropolitan area)              - 1900 pp/km2
Population city-region change          -

Bangkok region

(World Bank data - -)

Extreme heat                                        - HIGH
Wildfire                                                  - HIGH  
Water scarcity                                      - medium
River flood                                            - medium
Urban flood                                          - medium
Coastal flood                                        - HIGH
Cyclone                                                  - HIGH
Tsunami                                                 - (no data)
Landslide                                               - low
Earthquake                                           - low
Volcano                                                 - (no data)


Economic type                                     - emerging upper-middle income
GDP /pp city-region                            - $14360 USD PPP
HDI (national 2017)                            - 0.755    


(national level data)
Welfare regime (BTI)                           - 5.5
Control of corruption (SPI)                -3.7
Access to justice (WGI)                       - 2.2


Organisations, Programmes, and Projects

Bangkok, C40 Cities

Description: city profile and case studies

Reports and Policies

Bangkok Climate Change Plan, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

Description: mitigation and adaptation measure and implementation plan

Bangkok resilience strategy, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

Description: plan for climate adaptation, economic development, and livability

Bangkok Assessment Report on Climate Change 2009, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Green Leaf Foundation and United Nations Environment Programme

Description: climate mitigation and adaptation assessment

Academic Articles

Limthongsakul, Sani, Nitivattananon, Vilas, & Arifwidodo, Sigit Dwiananto. (2017). Localized flooding and autonomous adaptation in peri-urban Bangkok. Environment and Urbanization, 29(1), 51-68.

Description: drivers of flooding and impacts on community storm water infrastructure

Wongsa S., Vichiensan V., Piamsa-nga N., Nakamura S. (2019) Urban Flooding and Adaptation to Climate Change in Sukhumvit Area, Bangkok, Thailand. In: Mannina G. (eds) New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling. Green Energy and Technology. Springer, Cham.

Description: pilot case study using GIS

Saito, N. (2014). Challenges for adapting Bangkok’s flood management systems to climate change. Urban Climate, 9, 89-100.

Description: governance and policy study of BMA’s approach to flooding

Laeni, Naim, Van den Brink, Margo, & Arts, Jos. (2019). Is Bangkok becoming more resilient to flooding? A framing analysis of Bangkok's flood resilience policy combining insights from both insiders and outsiders. Cities, 90, 157-167.

Description: analyzes the approach to flooding in the Resilience Strategy

Boossabong P. (2017) Floods and Food in the City: Lessons from Collaborative Governance Within the Policy Network on Urban Agriculture in Bangkok, Thailand. In: Allen A., Griffin L., Johnson C. (eds) Environmental Justice and Urban Resilience in the Global South. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Description: analysis of resilience and justice potentials of an urban agriculture policy network

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