Rapid expansion of suburban family housing, followed by some reverse movement back to cities, in search of jobs, culture etc. Large expansion of per-urban densities are seen on the maps.
Public services & public transport not easy to provide in scattered low density developments. Decentralization push via multi-locality, digital services & jobs – in tension with the pull of community & networks.
Social & cultural drivers: mythology of the forest lifestyle: demographic shift & out-migration of rural young. Also out-migration of urban families to smaller towns
Helsinki metro region rapid expansion, while many rural regions are shrinking with large social costs. Large ‘beltway’ sprawl area around orbital road witih global businesses.
Climate change issues
Temperature rise projection 2080-2100: 1.5 to 6.5 degrees max
Precipitation winter: 30%+ average: Precipitation summer: 20%+ average
Large areas of pluvial flood risk in forest hinterland. Fluvial flood risk increased by rainfall intensity and melting snow. Increased winter flooding. Sea level rise due to climate change increases flood risk
Floods / heavy rains: farming damage, water services effected.
Drought: Increased irrigation for farming, weakened flora growth, increased forest fire risk, decreased summer hydropower production, diminishing groundwater sources, water traffic difficulties
Increasing city density and climate change may increase the flood risk due to increased impermeable surface and intensified rainfall
Wildfires in some forest areas. Tick-borne diseases may increase as growing season increases. Biodiversity threatened buy increased city development and reduction of green areas. Flora will be affected by rapid change in winter conditions, loss of species may affect habitats and eco-system functions. Plant diseases and pests may increase.
Climate change may possibly combine with other demographic changes, influx of migration, urban rural divisions etc: Flood defence is advanced, however not possible to cover the large areas of hinterland
Generally a strong society with high cohesion. Reduced sunlight in winter months may exacerbate winter depression. Aging populations will experienced increase health risks due to increased heat stress.
Local government is generally well organized but there may be some in-flexibility.
Regional planning for the metro region is now taking shape, in a sophisticate multi-level system. The Ministry provides a toolkit for climate policy assessment.
Many civil society groups are strong, e.g. labour unions, academics, heritage etc.
From the Anti-Corruption.fi Finland is one of the least corrupt countries in the world